Why does the plum dry out suddenly? Diseases andplum pests from which the tree dries and leaves curlplums

Вт, 28 июн 2016 Автор: Галина Панкратова

Plum, like other fruit crops, is at risk
contamination by pests and diseases.

Fungal and viral infections, insect damage can
lead to crop loss and even death of trees.

Бывает так, что слива сохнет, листья plums скручиваются, а
to understand why this is happening is difficult. And the reasons for this state
деревьев масса, ведь болезней и вредителей у plums много.

But, if you look closely, signs of damage to trees and flow
diseases are different. To find the source of the problem, you need
identify the “culprit” – a pest or infection that struck
plum.

Plum: pests and diseases

The reason a plum dries can be a disease
affecting all or many species of fruit trees or inherent
only this culture of disease. The basis of drying can be
non-infectious physiological factors.

Diseases

With the infectious drying out of stone fruit growers faced in
early twentieth century. What is its cause? Mainly
fungal and viral infections.

Cytosporosis

Cytosporosis — распространенное грибное заболевание плодовых
trees: first dry up the bark, then die in this place
branches. The disease is life-threatening tree. Cytosporosis infection more often
threatens only weakened plants with damaged bark.
«Cytosporosisные» участки краснеют. In the affected cortex are formed
numerous dark pycnidia of the fungus (“goose skin”), randomly
scattered over the affected surface.

Cytosporosis

The measure of prevention is the correct agricultural technology. Sure to
it is necessary to cover up the sections of the branches with garden pitch, clean and burn everything
dry branches and dried fruit.

Treating a tree for cytosporosis is possible only in the initial stages.
disease, until the fungus struck the deep tissue of the plant. Spicy
sharpened knife removes damaged areas, grabbing two
centimeter healthy wood. For the purpose of wound disinfection
treated with blue vitriol (2% solution) and smeared
garden pitch.

Verticillary wilt, or wilt, or mobile
wood

Soil fungus, enters the plant through the roots. Contaminated
subject to many plant species (about four hundred).

The first manifestation of a wilt is leaf wilting in the middle or the end.
of the summer The process starts from the bottom of the branches, gradually rising and
seizing young shoots. Листья plums начинают скручиваться и
dry. Early leaf fall by the first of August may
bare the trees completely. Often leaves fly around with individual branches.
or parts of the crown. Only on the tops of the annual shoots are visible
young leaves. There are acute and chronic forms.

On the leaves, the fungus forms microsclerotia, which preserve
soil vitality up to 8 years. On the saw cut branches noticeably dark
ring of dead vessels.

Wilt

Late blight

Late blightом, оказывается, болеют не только овощи, но и деревья.
If this fungus is damaged, the whole tree dries out, while
Verticillus, usually causes the death of individual branches.

Wound parasite secretes strong toxins. Affects all
Rosaceae, pulses, conifers. Causes root rot, bark rot,
wood и плодов.

Phytophthora (root rot)

Development conditions:

• high soil moisture;

• t>25˚С;

• the presence of wounds on the roots;

• susceptible rootstocks;

• warm winters.

The fungus is stored in the soil. In the spring, it infects the roots of plants.
Мицелий медленно развивается в корнях plums, убивая их токсинами и
causing blockage of blood vessels. The tree dies in two or three years.

Monilioz

May cause drying of individual branches. With severe infection
the tree perishes. There are two forms of moniliasis: monilial burn and
fruit rot.

Monilial burn rampant in the spring in the flowering phase. Infection
penetrates plant tissue through pistils of flowers. Then
spreads on the branches, causing them to shrink. Leaves and young
shoots turn black and die, becoming similar to the burnt and
charred.

Favorable for the spread of moniliosis during flowering
conditions of high humidity at low temperatures.

Control measures.

• Agrotechnical:

– Before kidney swelling – removal, pruning of dead branches; collection and
utilization of dead ovaries and fruits.

– In the flowering phase – pruning and disposal of infected branches with
capture 10-15 cm of healthy tissue.

– До съема урожая — collection and уничтожение падалицы.

• Chemical:

– From swelling of buds to the beginning of flowering – treatment with 1% Bordeaux
mixture or abig-peak 8.5-9.6 kg / ha.

“During flowering, a chorus of 0.2–0.35 kg / ha is used.

– If wet weather persists, they are sprayed after flowering.
chorus 0.2 kg / ha or soon 0.2 l / ha.

From the manifestation of moniliosis on fruits (fruit rot) with
detection of signs of the disease is sprayed soon 0.2 l / ha or
abiga peak 4.8 kg / ha. Treatments are carried out at the beginning of ripening.

Оспа plums (шарка)

It is expressed by the appearance on the leaves of pale spots of various
forms. With the development of the disease leaves become marble,
yellow green. Dark green stripes and rings protrude on the fruit.
Fruits are deformed and fall off. Leaves dry out. Observed
premature leaf fall. The next stage of the disease is shrinking.
branches, then – the whole tree.

The disease is spread with planting and vaccination material.
The carrier of the infection is aphid.

Smallpox can destroy the whole garden. Is quarantine
disease. There are no effective ways of dealing with the sharq.

Pests

Aphids pollen plum

Overwinters in the phase of eggs, which are located at the base of the kidneys, in
cracked bark. During bud break in early April
the larvae hatch, which stick to the first young
leaflets. In the first generation of larvae a little, and colonies
обнаруживаются после окончания цветения plums при появлении личинок
second generation. The pest causes significant damage to leaves and flowers.
and fruits. The damaged leaves turn yellow along the veins, the flowers dry up,
fruits fall, because of this, the harvest can be significant
reduced

Aphid

Control measures.

• Agrotechnical:

– When carrying out cutting it is necessary to cut out the escapes occupied
hibernating eggs with aphids, and remove root growth.

• Chemical:

– In the early spring period is sprayed with the drug number
thirty.

– In the presence of a pest before flowering or immediately after it
treatment should be carried out with fufanon, CE 1 l / ha, or zolone with
consumption rate of 2 l / ha, or danadim, CE 2l / ha.

Mite spiderweb

Females overwinter under fallen foliage, exfoliated bark. Spring in
flowering time is moved to the leaves where they multiply, forming
large colonies on the upper and lower side of the leaf. By increasing
numbers densely covered with cobweb leaves. Tick ​​sucks
cell sap from the plant.

After shedding a significant number of leaves a tree can
perish. Клещ очень мелкий, овальной forms. The color is changeable and
depends on the time of year: at the beginning of summer, the body is grayish-green with
dots on the sides, from the last days of summer to spring
orange red color.

Control measures.

• Agrotechnical:

– Destruction of weeds, cleaning shtambov from old dead bark
and whitewash them in the fall.

• Chemical:

– In the early spring period before the start of bud break, if available
threshold of harmfulness should be treated with the drug number
thirty.

– After the end of flowering in the period of the start of ripening
деревья plums опрыскивают золоном, или данадимом, или
bitoxibacillin.

К усыханию и скручиванию листьев plums может привести также
a strong population of trees by other insects, for example,
the shield

Shchitovka

California shield

Quarantine pest. Yellow microscopic insect from 0.1
mm (larvae) up to 1.2 mm (adult female). The body is protected
flap (from 0.2 to 2.2 mm), having the color of the bark.

Insect pierces plant tissue with proboscis and feeds on
the contents of its cells: bark, fruits, leaves. More than one hundred shield insects
placed on one square centimeter.

As a result of their malicious activity, the crust cracks,
individual branches or the crown of the tree dries out; they appear on the fruit
red or purple spots.

Control measures.

• Spraying before blooming kidney drug number 30,

• during the growing season – one of the insecticides: fufanon, kemifos,
Spark M, Actellic.

But not only pests and diseases can cause drying.
and twisting the leaves on the plum. Trees are drying out due to mechanical
damage to the bark, its suspending in the winter. Disadvantage
trace elements (such as boron and copper) can cause such a phenomenon
as a dry top.

If groundwater is close to the surface, it may also suffer
from this disease.

It happens that it arises “suddenly.” This means that the roots
trees reached groundwater. Особенно усыхание макушек plums
manifested if the water is saline.

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