Lymphadenitis in children – the first symptoms, possiblecomplications. Causes, treatment, prevention of lymphadenitischildren

Сб, 25 фев 2017 Автор: врач терапевт Елена
Kornilov

The inflammatory process in the lymph nodes, as a protective
reaction to the introduction of infection in the body – lymphadenitis – and sometimes
children, и у взрослых при самой разной патологии. All increase
group of regional lymph nodes, or, depending on the pathology,
there is a change in the lymph nodes of a certain location.

Lymph nodes – a barrier to further spread
infections. Not only bacteria, viruses,
mushrooms, but also toxins with tissue decay products – any foreign
protein entering the body is delayed
lymph nodes.

Чаще всего лимфаденит встречается у children в возрасте от года до
six, it is secondary (cases of isolated
primary inflammation of the lymph nodes).

Состояние lymph nodes у здоровых children

Normally, the size of the lymph nodes is up to 1.0 cm, but they can vary.
in a healthy child – from 1.5 to 2.0 cm. An increase of over 2.0 cm,
as a rule, are already a symptom of any disease, but all
this is individualized and valued in conjunction with other
signs of.

On palpation in a healthy child, the lymph nodes may not
palpable, or smooth, painless, elastic
individual groups of lymph nodes:

• neck;

• axillary;

• inguinal.

Growth and development of the lymphatic system, incl. and lymph nodes,
ends with a child by the age of six. Therefore, the entire period
formation is accompanied by increased susceptibility even to
the smallest disturbances in the body.

Лимфаденит у children — причины

Swollen and inflamed lymph nodes – the result of the introduction of infection
hematogenous, lymphogenous or contact routes.

Самой частой причиной лимфаденита у children является
non-specific infection caused by staphylococci and
streptococci.

The causative agents of lymphadenitis are bacteria, viruses, fungi,
protozoal infection.

Lymphadenitis can be:

• local;

• regional;

• generalized.

Regional lymphadenitis develops with streptococcal
staphylococcal infection, tularemia, tuberculosis, syphilis,
genital hepatitis.

Generalized lymphadenitis occurs in infectious
mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis,
tuberculosis, aids, etc.

This may be the pathology of any organs and systems: ENT,
respiratory, musculoskeletal, urogenital, digestive organs
(inflammation in the mouth).

Кроме вышеперечисленных, при лимфадените у children причины могут
be associated with other existing diseases or conditions.
These include:

• allergic manifestations as a result of vaccination or
helminthiasis;

• blood diseases;

• oncopathology with metastases;

• autoimmune diseases;

• long-term use of certain medications;

• violation of metabolic processes.

Лимфаденит у children — первые симптомы

Клиника лимфаденита у children проявляется более бурно, чем у
adults. There are:

1. Acute lymphadenitis, which is characterized by:

• short hidden period;

• a rise in temperature to high numbers;

• painful palpation;

• localization of the process in the lymph node, does not go beyond the capsule.

2. Chronic lymphadenitis differs from acute:

• duration;

• painless.

При лимфадените у children первые симптомы однотипны и
characterized by:

• pain;

• increase in size;

• high temperature.

With the progression of the process may occur hyperemia
skin.

For ease of evaluation of the inflammatory response by
the lymph nodes are divided into three degrees:

I degree – 0.5 – 1.5 cm in diameter;

II degree – 1.5 – 2.5 cm;

III degree – 2.5 – 3.5 cm in diameter and more.

Лимфаденит у children — признаки

При лимфадените у children признаки могут быть разнообразными, т.
to. it is a manifestation of a disease. Therefore, on
the first place is the symptoms of the main disease that caused
lymphadenitis. Enlarged lymph nodes accompany infectious
заболевания, встречающиеся у children чаще другой патологии, поэтому
при лимфадените у children первыми симптомами могут быть проявления
the underlying disease.

These are mainly signs of intoxication:

• lethargy, weakness;

• headaches;

• reduced appetite;

• chills;

• pruritus;

• possible violation of consciousness and other signs of pathology,
causing lifadenitis.

В зависимости от локализации патологического процесса у children
there is an increase and inflammation of certain groups
lymph nodes

1. Increased inflammations are most often noticeable.
lymph nodes in the neck of the child. Lymphadenitis is usually detected.
верхнешейных lymph nodes, это указывает на инфекционный характер
diseases.

При левостороннем надключичном лимфадените у children признаки
intoxication with severe weakness, sweating, fatigue,
lack of appetite may indicate a tumor process
in the abdominal cavity.

Supraclavicular lymphadenitis on the right accompanies organ damage
chest.

It can be:

• tuberculosis;

• sarcoidosis;

• лимфопролиферативные diseases.

In these cases, also find lymphadenitis mediastinum.

2. The following pathologies lead to axillary lymphadenitis:

• cat scratch disease;

• infections of the upper limbs, chest;

• cancer tumors.

3. Inguinal lymphadenitis is a manifestation of infections of the inguinal region.
and lower extremities.

4. Occipital lymphadenitis causes:

• rubella;

• infections on the head.

5. The parotid is a manifestation of:

• cat scratch disease;

• eye infections.

With lymphadenitis caused by acute bacterial
infection occurs:

• unilateral failure;

• pain on palpation;

• fluctuation;

• покраснение кожи над поражёнными lymph nodes.

During the oncological process, tight, painless
lymph nodes.

Проблема лимфаденита у children является в настоящее время
relevant and difficult for doctors of various specialties.
Большинство случаев воспаления и увеличения lymph nodes связано с
the presence of benign processes. But often high
the likelihood of a tumor, and then the child needs an urgent
consultations of the oncologist for the solution of a question of the prompt treatment.

Лимфаденит у children — лечение

При лимфадените у children лечение начинается после тщательного
examination, clarify the etiological factor that caused
основное заболевание и воспаление lymph nodes.

1. Etiotropic drugs are used for treatment.
with high efficiency and safety. If it is clear that
lymphadenitis is a manifestation of infection, are appointed:

• macrolides,

• aminopenicillins;

• cephalosporins;

• antiviral;

• immunomodulatory drugs.

Принцип лечения лимфаденита у children заключается в раннем
prescribing antibacterial drugs until results are obtained
tests, if there are marked changes in the oropharynx and lungs, or
the condition of the child is severe.

After 5 – 7 days, when the pathogen is precisely identified, treatment
continues with macrolides or antiviral drugs
/ Acyclovir, Arbidol /).

In mild to moderate conditions, drugs of choice with
early days – macrolides. The average course of treatment is 10 days.

2. Antiviral drugs are prescribed if the child has
lymphadenitis and herpes viruses. They are applied simultaneously.

3. The complex therapy includes immunomodulators:

• Licopid;

• Cycloferon;

• Viferon.

The success of treatment depends on the early appointment of complex therapy,
including the listed groups of drugs.

Лимфаденит у children — профилактика

При лимфадените у children профилактика направлена на своевременную
diagnosis and treatment of diseases in order to stop
распространение процесса и предупредить complications.

It is necessary:

• avoid injury to the child as much as possible;

• take measures to prevent the spread of infection if
the child has abrasions or scratches – to process in a timely manner
antiseptics (hydrogen peroxide, “green”, iodine should always be
at hand), protect with special antibacterial
plasters;

• pay attention to the state of the mouth and teeth: on time
treat caries, monitor daily hygiene
oral cavity;

• maintain high immunity: conduct courses of multivitamins
with mineral additives, hardening; physical exercise,
walks in the open air.

Attention to the health of the child, the fulfillment of all
hygienic and preventive rules will save the child from
diseases.

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