Hypoxic CNS damage in a newborn:causes, symptoms. Treatment of hypoxitatic CNS damage innewborns

Пн, 10 окт 2016 Автор: педиатр Мария
Maximov

Every future mother is afraid of pathologies of pregnancy and childbirth and
wants to prevent them.

One of these pathologies is fetal hypoxia and hypoxia during childbirth,
which can lead to disturbances in the work of many organs and
tissues, including the brain.

The consequences of such damage may be prolonged.
time, sometimes all my life.

Causes of hypoxic CNS damage in the newborn

The central nervous system first suffers from a lack
oxygen, which can lead to various factors during
pregnancy and childbirth. It can be:

• During pregnancy:

– Gestoza on late terms;

– Early placental abruption, threat of interruption
pregnancy;

Heart defects in mother and fetus;

-Anemia in the mother;

-Lack or excess amniotic fluid;

– maternal intoxication (medicinal, professional,
smoking);

-Resus-conflict of mother and fetus;

– Maternal infectious diseases;

• During childbirth:

-The invasion of the fetal umbilical cord;

-The weakness of labor;

– delayed childbirth;

– Mother’s bleeding;

– Birth injury to the neck.

As you can see, most of the hazards affect
baby’s health before birth, and only a few during
childbirth.

Aggravate the course of pregnancy pathologies leading to
hypoxic CNS damage in a newborn may be excessive
weight, chronic illness of the mother or her too young or too
Mature age (under 18 or over 35). And for any of the types
hypoxia brain is affected first.

Symptoms of brain damage

AT первые часы и дни после рождения на первый
plan go signs of abnormalities by the cardiovascular
system, and the symptoms of hypoxic CNS damage begin to show
yourself later.

If the brain damage is caused by a pregnancy pathology, then
the child may be lethargic, weakened or completely
there are no reflexes that should be healthy
newborn baby. In case of pathology that occurred during childbirth, the child is not
immediately begins to breathe after birth, the skin has a bluish tint,
the frequency of respiratory movements is lower than normal. And just as there will be
reduced physiological reflexes – according to these signs, you can
suspect oxygen starvation.

AT более старшем возрасте гипоксия мозга, если
she was not cured in time, manifests itself by slowing down
psychoemotional development up to severe forms of dementia,
movement disorders. In this case, the presence of organic
pathologies – cysts of the brain, hydrocephalus (especially often
occurs during intrauterine infections). Heavy
brain hypoxia can be fatal.

Diagnosis of hypoxic CNS damage in
newborn baby

The first diagnostic procedure that is carried out for all
newborns immediately after birth is an assessment of his condition
The Apgar scale, which takes into account such vital indicators as
breathing, heartbeat, skin condition, muscle tone and
reflexes. A healthy child scores 9-10 on the Apgar scale,
signs of hypoxic damage to the CNS can significantly reduce
this indicator, which should be a reason for more accurate
surveys.

Doppler ultrasound to assess the state
brain blood vessels and reveal their congenital
abnormalities that may be one of the causes of fetal hypoxia and
newborn baby.

Ultrasound, CT and MRI of the brain can reveal various
organic pathology of the nervous system – cysts, hydrocephalus,
areas of ischemia, underdevelopment of certain sections, tumors.
The difference in the principles of operation of these methods allows you to see
The most complete picture of brain damage.

To assess damage to the functions of the nervous system is used
neurography and myography are methods based on effects on
muscular and nervous tissue by electric current, and allowing
to track how different parts of the nerves and muscles react to it. AT
случае врождённого гипоксического повреждения ЦНС у newborn baby
This method allows you to understand how far peripheral
the nervous system, and how much in this case are the chances of the child
full physical development.

Additionally appointed biochemical blood test, analysis
urine to detect biochemical disorders associated with
hypoxia of the brain.

Treatment of hypoxia in newborns

Treatment of hypoxic brain damage depends on
its causes and severity. If hypoxia occurs during childbirth, and not
accompanied by organic pathology of the brain, blood vessels,
heart, lung or spine then depending on the degree she
can either pass on its own within a few hours (light
form, 7-8 Apgar), or require treatment in an oxygen chamber
with normal or high blood pressure (hyperbaric
oxygenation).

Organic pathology, which is the cause of constant
hypoxia of the brain (heart defects, respiratory system, trauma neck)
It is usually treated surgically. ATопрос о возможности
operations and its timing depends on the state of the child. The same goes for
organic pathology of the brain (cysts, hydrocephalus),
arising as a result of fetal hypoxia. AT
In most cases, the earlier the operation is performed, the more
child’s chances of full development.

Prevention of hypoxic brain damage

Since the effects of intrauterine hypoxia are extremely
destructive to the brain of the child in the future then pregnant
A woman needs to be very attentive to her health.
Impact of factors that could disrupt
the normal course of pregnancy – to avoid stress, fully
eat, moderately play sports, give up alcohol and
smoking, in time to attend female consultation.

With severe gestosis, as well as the appearance of signs
premature placental abruption and threatened abortion
– abdominal pain, bloody discharge from the genital tract, sharp
decreased blood pressure, sudden nausea and vomiting without
reasons – you must immediately consult a doctor. ATозможно, будет
It is recommended to lie down on conservation – neglect this recommendation.
it does not follow. The complex of medical measures carried out in the hospital will allow
avoid severe fetal hypoxia and its consequences in the form of congenital
brain pathologies.

Ultrasound, which is done in the last weeks of pregnancy, allows
to identify such potentially dangerous states as entanglement by the umbilical cord,
which during labor can prevent the baby from taking the first breath,
pelvic or lateral presentation, which is also dangerous because
родах разовьётся гипоксия newborn baby. To correct the dangerous
presentations there are complexes of exercises, and if they were
ineffective, cesarean section is recommended. The same
recommended for entwining the umbilical cord.

Measuring the size of the fetus and pelvis of a woman allows you to determine
anatomically and clinically narrow pelvis – the discrepancy between the size of the pelvis
sizes of the child’s head. AT этом случае роды естественным путём
will lead to injuries to both the mother and the child, or
prove completely impossible. The safest method
The delivery in this case is Cesarean section.

ATо время родов необходимо обязательно следить за интенсивностью
contractions – if it becomes insufficient for quick
родоразрешения, проводится стимуляция childbirth. Long stay
fetus in the birth canal can lead to the development of head hypoxia
the brain, since the placenta no longer supplies its body with oxygen,
and the first breath is possible only after birth. Avoid this
states allow exercise to prepare for
maternity.

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