Toxoplasmosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis,treatment

Wed, 04 May 2016

Токсоплазмоз — паразитарное заболевание
human and animal provoked by the simplest microorganism –
Toxoplasma gondi (Toxoplasma gondii).

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread diseases in
the world. In Africa and South America, about 90% of the population is infected;
Russia, according to the latest data – up to 30% of residents.

Toxoplasmosis – Causes

The main carriers of the disease are animals, more often
just a cat. Oocytes (eggs) secreted along with feces in
end up on their fur, and this is a direct path to infection
person People stroking a pet and not washing their hands is easy
can bring the parasite into your body through the digestive
tract.

Products from infected animals (meat, eggs, milk)
and not subjected to sufficient heat treatment, also
dangerous. Eating such foods inevitably leads to
getting Toxoplasma into the human body. Toxoplasmosis also
can be transmitted by blood-sucking insects, through damaged
skin, in utero (from mother to fetus).

It should be noted that infection for pregnant women is fraught
serious consequences for the unborn child. Therefore strongly
We do not recommend contacting this responsible period.
cats

Toxoplasmosis – symptoms

In humans, toxoplasmosis occurs in three forms: acute,
latent and chronic. Most common latent and
chronic form, acute with pronounced symptoms
observed very rarely. Usually it is peculiar to people with depressed.
immunity.

The decrease in the protective functions of the body can contribute
various autoimmune diseases and procedures such as
HIV infection, oncology, chemotherapy, organ transplants, etc.

The latent (asymptomatic) form can go at any time in
acute stage of the disease. In this case, a healthy immunity itself
destroys the parasite and provides the body with a lifelong
resistance to toxoplasmosis.

To identify the disease is very difficult even in the acute stage, since
Symptoms may be masked by other diseases. Why is that
is going on? Because toxoplasmosis, getting into the bloodstream, spreads
with blood on all organs, and any one of them can fail. A heart,
liver, eyes, brain can be affected
infections. And sometimes the disease is limited to mild symptoms:
slight increase in lymph nodes, mild rash, headaches,
eye infection.

Identify toxoplasmosis, focusing on the clinic, almost
is impossible. Recognize the disease is possible only with the help of special
analyzes.

Toxoplasmosis – diagnosis

The main diagnostic methods are: complement fixation test,
reaction of indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA – enzyme immunoassay
analysis.

The most reliable method is ELISA. Its principle is based on
isolation of specific antibodies to toxoplasma.

After getting the microorganism inside the person, immunity
begins to produce immunoglobulins, called them in medicine – IgM
(early antibodies). It is they who fight infection. Through
for some time, IgM disappears and IgG antibodies appear, which
provide lifelong resistance to toxoplasmosis.

It is easy to guess if IgM is detected, then infection has occurred.
most recently, the presence of IgG suggests that
infection happened a long time ago, and toxoplasmosis you no longer
scary.

Токсоплазмоз — treatment и профилактика

The disease does not always require treatment – withdraw
pathogen from the body is almost impossible because
over time, toxoplasmas form cysts that are resistant to all
drugs. Antibodies and cysts remain in the body
forever and ever.

Treatment is prescribed to people with pronounced symptoms at low
immune recoil. Apply chemotherapeutic and antibiotic
medicines. Treatment usually takes a long time.
If necessary, appoint a combined procedure.

In the chronic form, toxoplasmosis is more difficult to treat. Unfortunately,
chemotherapy in chronic course does not give a positive
result, therefore, all efforts in this case are directed to
strengthening immunity to help the body on its own
keep the infection under control.

Prevention of toxoplasmosis includes: 1) use in food
only heat-treated animal products; 2) thorough
washing vegetables, fruits and herbs, especially from the garden, the ground; 3)
hygiene (washing hands with soap after a walk,
before eating, as well as after contact with the cat).

Compliance with the above rules significantly reduces the risk
infection with toxoplasmosis.

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