Poliomyelitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis,treatment

Wed, Apr 27, 2016

Полиомиелит – это инфекционное заболевание, при
which affects the central nervous system, gastrointestinal
tract and lymphatic system. The disease is the most
common cause in children physical
deficiencies.

Polio virus, once in the body, penetrates into the nervous
system through the blood, affects different parts, mainly
motor cells of the spinal cord, as well as motor roots,
responsible for the movement. Polio virus spreads
airborne (sneezing, coughing) or intestinal
infections (through the feces of the patient). The main means of prevention
diseases – vaccination of children.

Polio – causes

The causative agent of polio is a virus that spreads
by airborne droplets, or with unwashed products and
discharge of a sick person. Causative agent of disease enough
it is resistant for several months to live in milk, on vegetables, in
sewage and faeces. However, does not tolerate exposure
disinfectants and high temperature. it
the only way to handle household items or products
excluding infection.

The incubation period for polio is about two
of the week. First, the virus enters the intestine and is fixed on
mucous membranes. It then enters the circulatory system, together
with blood spreading throughout the body, affecting the internal
systems and organs. The brain and spinal cord are particularly affected,
since the virus infects not only cells, but also those leaving the brain
nerve endings.

Poliomyelitis – symptoms

Symptoms of polio in most cases begin with
headaches, diarrhea and fever. Besides
various neurological disorders are noted. Virus in the body
goes through several basic steps that distinguish in medicine
thus: – the incubation period (duration is from
2 to 21 days); – pre-paralytic period, lethargy diagnosed
and muscle weakness (duration from 2 to 6 days); – paralytic:
muscles become difficult to control and more dense; –
recovery (duration is approximately one year); –
a period of residual effects in which muscle changes cause
limb deformity;

Poliomyelitis – diagnosis

Diagnostics is based on laboratory test data and
on the clinical manifestations of polio. Preliminary analysis
based on epidemiological data and characteristic
manifestations of the disease. Vaccination data is also taken into account.

The final diagnosis is made using virological
research. The virus is isolated from nasopharyngeal mucus and feces,
less often from cerebrospinal fluid. To identify the level of damage
motor neurons, using the method of electroneuromyography,
which allows you to accurately determine the electrical activity
muscles and nerves.

Полиомиелит – treatment и профилактика

Due to epidemiological activity (high
contagiousness) a person who is infected with the polio virus in
must be urgently hospitalized. Hold
treatment в инфекционных стационарах. Artificial ventilation of the lungs
is prescribed if paralysis of the respiratory tract is noted, which
fatal.

The best prevention of polio is strict adherence
hygiene (washing food and hands thoroughly). You can not swim
in dirty waters because the virus can get into the body together
with swallowed water. Compulsory in our country
vaccination against polio, which guarantees lifelong immunity.
The first vaccination is done to a child at three months, the second at 4.5 months,
the third is at 6 months. Re-vaccination is carried out at 18, 20
months and 14 years.

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