Близорукостью называют дефект зрения, который
characterized by good sharpness at close range and poor
– far away. It is congenital when the child is already at birth.
has impaired vision in the distance, and acquired, arising after
childbirth, usually after 7 years.
Depending on the course of myopia is:
– not progressive, in which the disease is characterized
preservation of vision for a long time strictly
fixed mark; – progressive, in which vision
reduced by one diopter per year or more.
Myopia is a very serious disease, since
permanent stretching of the eyeball appear irreversible
physiological changes in the eye and significant
reduced vision These disorders lead to pathological changes.
the fundus of the eye, for example, to peripheral degeneration of the retina, and as
the consequence is to her detachment and total blindness.
Myopia (myopia) – causes
The most common cause of myopia is lengthening
anteroposterior axis of the eye. Less often, excessive myopia results
the refractive power of its optical media. To contributing factors
development of myopia, can be attributed to intense visual work
at close range with weakened accommodation and hereditary
If these factors are exacerbated by weakness of the sclera, this leads
to the progressive stretching of the eyeball causing
pathological changes in the vascular and retinal membranes.
The reason for the weakening of accommodation and extensibility of the sclera can be
general infections and intoxications, endocrine shifts and disorders
Myopia (myopia) – symptoms
The main symptom of myopia is reduced visual acuity,
in which it is improved by putting to the eyes
As a rule, the beginning of the development of myopia occurs in the early
school age. However, it tends to increase with
over time, especially if it is not properly treated.
Sometimes, with a pathological lengthening of the eyeball,
re-bleeding occurs in this area leading to
rupture and detachment of the retina, opacification of the vitreous
body. If myopia is not corrected in time with glasses, then
excessive work of internal rectus muscles and lack of impulse to
accommodations can upset binocular vision and lead to
Myopia (myopia) – diagnosis
To diagnose myopia, first determine visual acuity with
the help of special lenses that correct myopia.
To confirm the diagnosis, you can use skiascopy,
which is to observe the moving light spot in
the illuminated pupil while rotating the ophthalmoscope mirror. If
the patient has hyperopia, myopia less than 1.0 diopters or
he has normal vision, then the movement of the light spot occurs in
one direction; with myopia more than 1.0 dioptres it
the movement is in a different direction.
Also, for the purpose of diagnosis, eye refractometry is performed,
there is, the measurement of its refraction using refractometers.
Myopia (myopia) – treatment and prevention
For the treatment of myopia there are surgical and non-surgical
methods. Non-surgical techniques include special exercises.
aimed at training the ciliary muscle. High degree of myopia
with complicated course also requires the implementation of a general gentle
Mode: exclude physical stress (weight lifting, jumping
etc.) and visual overload. With complications in the form of detachment
retinal and complicated cataract need surgical
In general, the surgical treatment of myopia today is very
is common. Such operations are carried out to strengthen
stretching the posterior segment of the eyeball and reducing
refractive power of the eye.
With a high degree of myopia, the main goal of treatment is
prevention of its progression and development of complications. Here
the main role is played by scleroplastic operations, which
represent the imposition of a kind of bandage on the back
surface of the eye to prevent further scleral stretching
in this department. If successful, such an operation
the progression of myopia stops or slows noticeably, and
visual acuity may increase slightly.
Prevention of myopia is reduced to limiting the visual load,
compliance with all requirements of eye hygiene, training of the eye muscles
with a weakened accommodation, etc.