Гипоплазией называют аномалии развития, которые
consist in the underdevelopment of tissue, organ, body part or the whole
organism. This is a congenital malformation, an extreme expression
whose aplasia is congenital
absence of an organ or body part.
The whole body hypoplasia is called microsomia or nanism.
(it is a type of dwarfism). However, more often you can
to meet the underdevelopment of individual organs: hypoplasia of the head
brain, or microcephaly, which is sometimes combined with underdevelopment
spinal cord and limbs; hypoplasia of one kidney, which
accompanied by a compensatory increase in the other kidney; hypoplasia
mammary gland, usually accompanied by underdevelopment of the external or
internal genital organs – infantilism.
Hypoplasia – causes of the disease
Hypoplasia develops as a result of intrauterine disruption
fetal development, which occurs due to the effects on the body
mothers of various external and internal factors. Internal factors
represented by all the anomalies of the primary germline
cells; external – external adverse effects on the fetus,
which can be very diverse.
One of the most important external factors in the development of hypoplasia
is a decrease in the amount of amniotic fluid and improper
fetal position. In addition, a vice may develop due to the influence
radiation energy, injuries, pressure on the uterus of a pregnant woman
high temperature and harmful metabolic products,
drinking, smoking, etc.
Disruption of fetal development and hypoplasia can also cause
various diseases of the mother, especially infections that are transmitted
through the placenta from it to the fetus (intrauterine infections), such as
toxoplasmosis, rubella, flu, etc.
Whole body hypoplasia (nanism) occurs due to
neuroendocrine growth disorders.
Symptoms of the disease depend on which organs are affected.
So, enamel hypoplasia manifests itself in violation of its formation,
most often on permanent teeth. Signs of tooth enamel hypoplasia
are whitish spots or depigmentation of various sizes,
dotted or often shaped grooves, grooves, enamel banners
crowns of teeth, sometimes – the complete absence of enamel on the affected area
tooth or on the entire surface of the tooth crown.
For dermal focal hypoplasia is characterized by the formation of sharply
delimited foci of thinned hyperpigmented skin,
nail dystrophy, hypotrichosis, abnormal development of the eyes, larynx,
heart and skeleton.
Hypoplasia of the genital gonads (testicles and ovaries) is characterized by
lower levels of sex hormones and impaired ovulation processes and
spermatogenesis, resulting in sexual disorders occur,
such as decreased libido, decreased potency in men,
frigidity in women.
Hypoplasia – diagnosis
Diagnostic methods of the disease are very different and depend on
which organ is affected by hypoplasia.
Гипоплазия – treatment и профилактика
The choice of treatment for tooth enamel hypoplasia is determined by the shape and
severity of the disease. Пятнистую hypoplasia лечат путем
bleaching with medicinal agents or grinding with
simultaneous remineralizing therapy to prevent
caries. When teeth are significantly damaged, they are coated.
Treatment of kidney hypoplasia should be carried out with complications
pyelonephritis and hypertension. However, remove the hypoplastic kidney.
possible only in case of normal functioning
Treatment of hypoplasia of the genital gonad is performed by correction
The main method of preventing hypoplasia is to the maximum
possible elimination of any harmful effects on the woman’s body,
which bears a child.