Сахарный диабет – это заболевание, которое
characterized by an increase in the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood due to
insufficient secretion or impaired insulin action.
Today, diabetes is one of the most serious
medical and social problems that afflict millions of people during
worldwide (according to various sources, 120-180 million people, or 2-3% of
total population of the earth).
Diabetes mellitus can be type I and type II. For sugar
Type I diabetes (insulin-dependent) is characterized by the occurrence of
insulin deficiency in the body. That is, beta cells
pancreas does not produce the right amount of insulin or
not at all capable of secreting it. Type I diabetes is congenital,
manifesting itself in young people, from infancy to 25-30 years.
Its share in the total number of diabetes
ranges from 10% to 15% of cases.
For sugar диабета II типа (инсулиннезависимого) характерно
gradual development. It occurs in people over 40 years old and
older, usually overweight. Insulin that they have
formed, does not have sufficient effect. On this form of diabetes
accounts for from 85% to 90%.
Diabetes – causes of the disease
Genetic defects are already established in diabetes.
and hereditary predisposition. If the father is sick with diabetes
or mother, then the probability of the child getting sick is about 30%;
in the presence of the disease in both parents, it reaches 60%.
The main cause of type I diabetes is to reduce or
cessation of insulin production due to beta cell death, the cause
which is a number of factors. Type II Diabetes
occurs due to reduced activity of insulin produced and
reduced insulin sensitivity to fatty tissue that
Patients with type II diabetes are usually observed in excess.
However, not everyone who is obese can get sick
Other causes of diabetes are severe stress,
some diseases of the pancreas, viral infections like
rubella, chickenpox, epidemic hepatitis, influenza and other
diseases. Such factors play a starting role in the development
diseases in persons with aggravated heredity, therefore, such
people, knowing this, must take measures to
as much as possible to protect themselves from them.
Another risk factor is age. Greatest risk of getting sick
Type II diabetes exists in overweight elderly
Diabetes – Symptoms
Sometimes diabetes up to a certain point can proceed covertly.
Different types of diabetes are characteristic for different types of diabetes. But,
There are symptoms common to both types. Their severity is determined
the degree of decrease in insulin secretion, the duration of the disease and
individual features of the patient. Most common diabetes
– frequent urination and a feeling of unquenchable thirst; – fast
weight loss, which can be accompanied by a constant feeling
hunger; – constant feeling of weakness or fatigue and fast
fatigue; – blurred vision (the appearance of a “white veil”
before eyes); – occurrence of problems with sexual activity; –
numbness and tingling in the numbed limbs – feeling
heaviness in the legs; – dizziness; – slow recovery with
infectious diseases and slow wound healing; – reduced
body temperature; – spasms of calf muscles; – skin itching and
itching in the perineum; – furunculosis; – pain in the region of the heart.
Diabetes – diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of diabetes is based on the availability of
classic symptoms of diabetes: increased consumption and excretion
urine fluids, urinary ketone secretions, weight loss
body, as well as an increase in blood glucose, which is manifested
fasting with repeated determination. Normal glucose levels
content is from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l.
Диабет – treatment и профилактика
Treatment of type I diabetes involves following a diet and regimen.
physical exertion and intensive insulin therapy to ensure
required blood sugar level of the patient. There are different types
insulin. Animal insulin is shared by origin.
origin and human. The latter is characterized by less
allergenicity and a higher therapeutic effect with less
The treatment for type II diabetes is diet
exercise and medication that lowers concentration
blood glucose. Particular importance in this case should be given
diet It must be said that in some cases using a diet
the problem of type II diabetes can be completely solved without
taking medication. So as for patients with diabetes II
type, characterized by overweight, the main purpose of such a diet
is to reduce the weight of the patient.