What level of hemoglobin should be normal inchildren до года. What to do if the child’s hemoglobin is lowered orincreased

Sun, 12 Jul 2015

What is hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a four-subunit molecule.
Each subunit contains iron-containing pigment (heme) and protein
(globin). Each gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.34 ml
oxygen.

In medical practice, the determination of hemoglobin in the blood
used to clear up anemia (insufficient iron
in blood), its severity and selection of therapy. Analysis performed
by collected blood and is expressed as the amount of hemoglobin in
grams per liter of whole blood. Normal values ​​of this test
may differ slightly from the standard values ​​(approximately
5-50 g / l) and each individual doctor interpreted differently.

Норма гемоглобина у children (до года)

Haveровень гемоглобина в норме у children до года сильно варьируется в
depending on age and gender. Newborn babies
концентрация гемоглобина выше, чем у children годовалого возраста. Have
недоношенных children – ниже, чем у рожденных в срок. Have девочек выше,
than boys. However, for each period of child development
determined the average rate of hemoglobin.

So the normal hemoglobin values ​​accepted by the majority
Child therapists are considered:

• at the time of birth – from 135 to 240 g / l (rounded 165
g / l);

• at the age of 7 days – from 150 to 200 g / l;

• в 3 недели – от 110 до 150 г/л (округленно 139 g / l);

• в 4-8недель – от 100 до 160 г/л (округленно 112 g / l);

• в 2-6 месяцев – от 95 до 140 г/л (округленно 126 g / l);

• in 6-24 months – from 105 to 135 g / l (rounded 120 g / l).

If the child’s hemoglobin is lowered

The low value of hemoglobin in the blood of a child most often
signals that the baby does not receive the required amount
iron for its development. That is, simply put, has a drawback
quality nutrition. Haveменьшение концентрации гемоглобина в крови
provokes a poor supply of blood with oxygen, leads to
malfunction of the body.

Iron plays a special role in muscle function, energy production,
brain development. Therefore, if the child has a long time
iron deficiency, it can cause inhibition in
developmental and behavioral problems.

Причины пониженного гемоглобина у children

As mentioned above – the reason for the decrease in hemoglobin level
malnutrition (either quantity or
quality of milk or mixtures). If the child gets enough
the amount of nutrition, and the hemoglobin is nevertheless reduced, it means
some other factors play a role. Hemoglobin in newborns
children может быть снижен в случаях:

• rapid death of red blood cells;

• large blood sampling for laboratory tests;

• blood loss at birth;

• weak production of bone marrow of erythrocytes.

Lack of red blood cells in the blood provokes the development
anemia and high bilirubin – hyperbilirubinemia. Reasons
conditions may be:

• hemolytic disease in a child;

• hereditary red blood cell anomaly;

• hereditary spherocytosis, with blood red blood pathology
cells take the form of small spheres;

• lack of enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase);

• use of sulfa drugs by a pregnant woman and
medications containing aniline dyes;

• infectious diseases, such as parasitic toxoplasmosis,
rubella, viral cytomegalovirus infection, herpes simplex,
syphilis;

• bacterial infections of the newborn acquired during
or after childbirth.

Кровопотеря, так же может стать причиной anemia. Blood loss
can occur in different ways. For example, when blood is lost through
the placenta, the organ that attaches the fetus to the uterus, and provides
nutrition of the fetus. If too much blood has entered the placenta during
of birth. When the placenta is separated from the uterus before delivery.

Симптомы и диагностика низкого уровня гемоглобина у children

Most babies with mild or moderate anemia do not have
any noticeable symptom of pathology. Haveмеренная анемия может
show slowness, lethargy and poor appetite
newborn, but it can also be asymptomatic.

Some newborns who have lost a significant amount
blood during childbirth may be in shock, seem
pale, have rapid pulse and low blood pressure.

When anemia is a consequence of the rapid destruction of blood
Taurus in an infant has increased bilirubin production. Leather
and the whites of the eyes become yellow – according to the results of the physical examination and
A blood test is diagnosed – childhood jaundice.

Most babies tend to have a weak form of anemia and
do not require any treatment. Newborns who lost
large amounts of blood are treated with therapy based on
intravenous fluids followed by a transfusion
blood.

Highly тяжелая форма анемии, вызванная гемолитической болезнью,
requires, along with blood transfusion, the use of preparator
reduce the level of bilirubin, as well as increasing concentration
red blood cells. Transfusion is performed by gradual replacement.
blood of a newborn to donor blood.

What is hemolytic disease in newborns?

Hemolytic disease – erythroblastosis is a condition with
which red blood cells break down or are destroyed
faster than normal. In severe forms, pathology can cause
death of a baby.

Hemolytic disease can develop in Rh positive
children born to rhesus negative mothers. Baby red
blood cells are destroyed by anti-rhesus,
that were produced by the mother and transferred to the baby through
maternal placenta before delivery.

If the fetus has Rh-positive red blood cells, the mother’s antibodies
will attempt to destroy the red blood cells of the fetus, and cause the development
anemia of various degrees of severity. Severe forms of anemia caused by
hemolytic disease, treated as usual
anemia.

Jaundice is treated in babies by exposure to bright light –
phototherapy or replaceable blood transfusion to donor. Highly
high bilirubin levels can cause cell damage
brain – nuclear jaundice. If this condition is not
timely diagnosed and will not begin treatment –
the consequences can be dire.

In infants, not only low hemoglobin occurs, but also
tall, which is also not the norm.

Elevated hemoglobin in a child (erythrocytosis) that is
mean

Pathology is the opposite of anemia and is characterized by
increased concentration of red blood cells in the blood.

Increased hemoglobin levels in the baby’s blood may occur
when:

• chromosomal abnormalities are present (with chromosome 13, 18 and 21),
which cause an increased production of red cells in
blood;

• extra red blood cells were introduced in the investigation
переливания blood;

• the baby was born at a high altitude or in conditions where
there is a lack of oxygen;

• the baby was born after 42 weeks of gestation;

• twins were born separating the placenta;

• a child is born to a mother with diabetes;

• a pregnant woman smoked, drank alcohol and
narcotic drugs.

Why does an increase in hemoglobin in children cause
anxiety?

Increased concentration of red blood particles thickens
blood and makes it difficult to deliver to the organs and tissues. Children
may experience shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, lethargy
and poor appetite. A large number of blood cells begins
destroy bilirubin. Against this background, seizures may occur.

Main symptoms with elevated hemoglobin levels
children

Many children with low elevated hemoglobin levels do not have
any visible symptoms. But in some cases (especially if
hemoglobin in a child is greatly elevated) in a child you may notice:

• deep red-purple color of lips, shells around
eye;

• poor appetite;

• lethargy;

• rapid breathing, respiratory failure;

• low blood sugar.

Symptoms of pathology may be similar to other medical
problems, therefore, always require proper diagnosis and
timely treatment. Pathology is clarified by
laboratory blood tests. If the analysis shows a child
high hematocrit (hemoglobin level) means it is present
disease.

In each individual case, the specific treatment prescribes
attending physician on the basis of the obtained tests and:

• age of the child, general condition and history of the disease;

• severity of illness;

• the body’s response to specific drugs, procedures and
measures taken;

• parental opinion.

Классическое лечение повышенного уровня гемоглобина у children в
Its composition may include:

• remove a certain amount of blood from the child’s body;

• replacement of withdrawn blood with special medicinal fluids
(позволяет уменьшить concentration красных кровяных телец);

• partial exchange transfusion.

The listed procedures can only be performed.
by a qualified doctor in a hospital setting through
vein, artery, rarely umbilical blood vessels.

As ancillary measures to eliminate the problem may be
recommended:

• Drink plenty of fluids (allowing you to thin the blood and reduce the level
hemoglobin);

• rejection of iron-containing food (including for nursing
mothers);

• introduction to the diet of a nursing mother of fish, a large number
seafood, plant products that reduce hemoglobin levels
в blood;

• rejection of red meat, liver, offal (as for a child,
so and nursing mothers).

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