Малярия является острой инфекцией, передающейся
through the blood. It is characterized by bouts of fever,
alternating with periods of their absence.
This disease takes the lives of 1.3 to 3 million annually.
people, of which 85-90% live in sub-Saharan Africa.
It is distributed in the territory from 45 ° north to 40 ° south
latitudes, often in tropical and subtropical climates. But,
the development of the tourism industry is increasingly leading to the identification of malaria in
countries that lie outside its natural range.
The formation of immunity after malaria occurs slowly,
moreover, it is not a protection against repeated disease, only
facilitates the course of the disease during re-infection.
The cause of the disease is one of four types of malarial
parasites – Plasmodia, which fall into the human bloodstream
as a result of the bite of an infected mosquito.
Malaria can also be transmitted during blood transfusions and when
using contaminated needles and syringes. When storing blood at + 4 ° C
parasites can persist for up to 14 days.
Malaria – Symptoms
Malaria is characterized by an incubation period of 1 to 6 weeks, but
sometimes it can last 14 months. After this, the disease begins
manifest mild chills, malaise, headache (in this
period malaria plasmodia are found in the liver).
Then comes a period of acute attacks of fever, alternating
free from fever. In a malaria attack, there are two phases:
chills and sweating. The duration of the phase chills is from
several minutes to several hours. In this period of time
the patient’s body temperature reaches 39-40 ° C and above, his skin
becomes pale with a blueness and cold shade
covered with pimples. The patient suffers from a very strong headache.
pain and increasing pain in the muscles, vomiting, thirst, sometimes – stupefaction
consciousness and delusions. With the increase in heat, his face turns red,
palpitations begin. Then the chill phase gives way to a sharp
sweating and lowering body temperature below normal. To the patient
it becomes easier, but he feels great weakness.
Malaria – diagnosis
The diagnosis of malaria is based on typical signs and results.
laboratory tests that allow to identify patients in the blood
malaria plasmodia. This is done by thick and thin.
Thick smear – screening, it is used for examination
a large number of people to identify malaria patients.
Once a malaria patient is identified, he is exposed to more
a thorough examination to determine the type of malarial
plasmodium. Для этого и существует метод тонкого smear.
Малярия – treatment и профилактика
For the treatment of malaria are used various drugs that can
destroy the pathogen and stop the development of the disease. But,
For many years, the main one is quinine.
Treatment of acute manifestations of malaria is carried out by hematocides,
acting on intracellular erythrocyte forms
causative agents of malaria. But, на паразитов в печеночных стадиях они
do not act.
To prevent long-term relapse of the disease can
use another group of drugs – tissue
schizontotsidy, completely destroying malaria plasmodia.
The most reliable method of preventing malaria is to refuse
trips to malaria areas. If such a trip to you yet
to be, then part of preparing for it should be getting
consult a doctor or pharmacist on how to prevent
infection. For example, 1-2 weeks before the trip, you can start
take special antimalarial drugs. Their reception is necessary
continue in the epidemic zone and for four
weeks after returning from there.
In addition, you need to protect yourself from mosquito bites with
repellents and mosquito nets.