Dyslalia in children and methods for its elimination

Disallia in children and methods for its elimination are still being studied. This speech impediment is that developmental problems speech apparatus and hearing in babies is not observed, but are present only difficulties with the pronunciation of sounds. If up to 5 years violation all children have speeches, then after this age examination of the child by a specialist.

Dyslalia in children and methods for its elimination

What it is?

Dyslalia (honey cipher code for MKB 10) is a violation sound pronunciation in children with normal articulation and stored by hearing. In oral speech, the diagnosis manifests itself as mixing, replacing or distortion of sounds. Outdated name and synonym for dyslalia – tongue-tied Now doctors do not use this word.

Speech therapy work with dyslalia consists in examination mobility and structure of the speech apparatus, the mechanism of articulation motility, the state of phonemic processes and sound pronunciation. If the speech defect cannot be corrected, then, in addition to the speech therapy examination, the child is sent for consultation to the otolaryngologist, a neurologist, a dentist.

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Dyslalia classification

Methods for correcting dyslalia as a speech disorder depend on its clinical classification. Considering the reasons for the violation of pronunciation sounds, doctors secrete organic (mechanical) and functional dyslalia. Mechanical impairment is associated with an anatomical defect. articulatory apparatus, and functional – due to social factors. All types of dyslalia and their characteristics are directly related to the physical condition of the child.

Dyslalia classification функциональной в свою очередь divided into sensory and motor. The first is due to neurodynamic shifts in the recheslukhovy analyzer. Motor dyslalia is an age-related violation of the speech motor analyzer, in which the movements of the tongue and lips of the baby become inaccurate, although auditory perception is normal. Often functional and mechanical dyslalia are combined.

Depending on how many sounds are distorted, speech defects are divided into simple (monomorphic) and complex (polymorphic). The simple ones include violations in which only one sound is incorrectly pronounced. Difficult dyslalia occurs in preschool children who are defectively pronouncing sounds of different groups.

Causes

The substitution of dyslalia sounds may be due to several reasons. With a mechanical anomaly, there are such violations articulatory apparatus, as a short bridle of the tongue, massive or too small tongue, sedentary lips, wrong bite, high narrow or flat low palate, small or rarely placed teeth.

Functional dyslalia associated with psychological characteristics children, as the structure of the articulation apparatus is not disturbed. The reason may be the imitation of the incorrect speech of parents, pedagogical neglect, minimal brain function, unformed phonemic hearing, general physical child weakness.

Symptoms < / h2>

Defects in pronunciation are replacing, distorting, skipping, or mixing sounds. Under the main symptoms of dyslalia in children means the complete loss of sound at the end, beginning or middle of the word. It can also be replaced on the basis of hardness-softness or deafness-voicing. When a child confuses two correctly pronounced sounds in the speech flow (he uses it inappropriately), this indicates a mixture of sounds.

The sequence of setting sounds of complex dyslalia in preschool children should be formed in accordance with the age. Symptoms such as tongue-tiedness, lack of phonemic hearing, imperfections of speech with low mobility of the articulation organs, or incorrect formulation of sound disappear normally by 5 years. If this does not happen, then professional correction of dyslalia of any etiology with the help of speech therapy sessions is needed.

Diagnostics < / h3>

The main method of examination for dyslalia is for the speech therapist to ascertain the characteristics of the course of pregnancy, childbirth, previous diseases of the newborn, the state of hearing, vision, and the musculoskeletal system. Primary diagnosis of dyslalia occurs according to medical records. Then the doctor proceeds to a visual examination of the mobility and structure of the organs of the articulation apparatus, and assesses the child’s performance of a series of exercises to imitate.

Logopedic principles of examination of children reveal the nature of speech disorders in different positions: syllables, words, texts, phrases. Next, the speech therapist checks the ability of the phonetic hearing. The method of speech therapy is a test of the ability to auditory differentiation of all speech sounds. In conclusion, the form of the anomaly is displayed, the type, type of incorrect pronunciation.

Dyslalia correction < / h2>

When the whole examination procedure has been carried out, the doctor determines the appropriate methods of forming the correct sound pronunciation. Modern methods of treatment of pathology allow for small violations to make a correction in 1-2 months, and in difficult cases – for 4-6 months. The younger the child, the faster the process. In order for speech therapy lessons to be effective, the duration and duration of classes should not be less than 3 times a week for 1 hour. If the violations are central, then in addition to classes with a speech therapist, you need to practice with your child several times a day at home. < P>

Stages of corrective work < / u>

Dyslalia correction takes three steps:

  1. Preparatory < / strong>. Anatomical defects are eliminated during mechanical abnormalities (plastic frenulum, course of orthodontic treatment). Speech motility is being developed in functional dyslalia (speech therapy massage, articulation gymnastics). For the correct pronunciation, the speech therapist can conduct experiments with the child: form the direction of the air flow, work out the reference sounds, develop fine motor skills. < / Li>
  2. Formation of primary pronunciation skills < / strong>. We study the ways of posing sounds (with mechanical help, by imitation or mixed). Automation of sounds in words, syllables, sentences, texts is established. When the sounds are mixed, the speech therapist differentiates them. < / Li>
  3. Formation of communication skills < / strong>. The final stage includes the development of the habit of the child to accurately use all the sounds worked out in all situations when communicating. < / Li> < / ol>

    Exercises to eliminate mechanical dyslalia < / h2>

    When a child talks through clenched teeth, but everything is normal with them, then most likely, the matter is in the wrong structure of the facial bones. This pathology occurs when only the lower jaw is mobile, and the upper movement is limited. You can develop the mobility of the facial bones using the following simple exercises that the child must perform regularly at home (all options are done at least 5 times):

    1. Open and close the mouth, constantly increasing the solution between the teeth; < / li>
    2. Move from side to side with the lower jaw, then back and forth; < / li>
    3. Bite your upper lip with your upper teeth, then your upper lip with your lower lip; < / li>
    4. Upperly cut the upper lip vigorously along the lower lip and do the same with the upper lip; < / li>
    5. Close teeth one after another, then lips. < / li> < / ol>

      Articulating exercises for the lips < / h2>

      A mechanical anomaly often occurs as a result of injury to the lips of a child, after which they form scars that limit the mobility of the articulation organ. To improve the lip functionality, you can use massage and articulation exercises:

      • “Pipe” < / strong>. When the teeth are tightly clamped, the lips should be pulled forward with the tubule for 10 seconds. < / Li>
      • Smile < / strong>. With a natural smile and teeth squeezed with a fence, it is necessary to sustain a time of 10 seconds or more. < / Li>
      • “Poured Horse” < / strong>. Lips should be relaxed, then sniff with them like a horse sound at least 10 times. < / Li>
      • “Funnel” < / strong>. When the teeth are open, it is necessary to “pull out” the lips with a tubule forward, and with the count “two”, the lips should be pulled in, having turned the teeth. It is advisable to do the exercise more than 10 times. < / Li>
      • “Hide and Seek” < / strong>. The lower lip should be hidden behind the front upper teeth so that only the upper lip is visible, as if it is hanging over the chin. Hold it for at least 5 seconds in this position. < / Li> < / ul> |

        Prognosis and Prevention < / h2>

        The main condition for the prevention of dyslalia is a healthy lifestyle from the first days after birth. The child needs massage, charging, hardening, which will have a beneficial effect on the development of speech in the future. When the baby does not utter syllables, you need to talk with him, tell tales. And it does not have to be reading. Describe items to him, talk about what you are doing: play, clean, cook.

        For the prevention of mechanical dyslalia should pay attention to the development of bite. Constantly check how well the lower and upper teeth grow in relation to each other, regularly take comprehensive care of physical development. If anatomical and psychological disorders are detected in a timely manner, then the child will not need psychoanalysis and the assistance of a speech therapist.

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